UPSC Key—18 July, 2023: Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana Gramin, Article 239 AA(7) and Hindu Undivided Family


Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance

Main Examination: General Studies II: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- Aiming to construct 2.95 crore houses under the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Gramin (PMAY-G) by March 2024, ahead of next year’s Lok Sabha elections, the Centre has withdrawn the allocation of 1.44 lakh houses from about two dozen states and Union Territories which failed to sanction the houses by June 30, and given these to Uttar Pradesh as additional allocation.

• Why Centre has withdrawn the allocation of 1.44 lakh houses from about two dozen states and Union Territories?

• For Your Information-According to sources, the Ministry of Rural Development, which is in charge of the PMAY-G scheme, has conveyed this to the states and UTs where the allocation of houses under the rural housing scheme has been revised downwards. These states and UTs are: Gujarat, Tripura, Odisha, Sikkim, Meghalaya, Maharashtra, Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Tamil Nadu, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Ladakh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Jharkhand, Punjab, Haryana, Uttarakhand and Andhra Pradesh. The Centre has set a target of constructing 2.95 crore houses by March 2024. Of the 2.95 crore houses, 2.04 crore were to be allocated to states based on the Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) data, while the remaining 91 lakh houses were allocated based on a survey, Awas+, which was conducted between June 2018 and March 2019 across the country. However, these states and UTs together failed to sanction a total of 1,44,220 houses — 7,496 from SECC data and 1,36,724 from the Awas+ list — within the deadline of June 30.

• What is Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna Gramin?

• Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana Gramin (PMAY-G)-Features of the Scheme and Nodal Ministry

• PMAY (Rural or Gramin) and PMAY (Urban)-Difference

• Other Infrastructure and Rural development related schemes-Know them

• Apart from focusing on providing houses to the eligible beneficiaries, PMAY-G also addresses the basic needs of households through convergence with other Government Schemes-Elaborate

• How exercise for identification of households, who though eligible for assistance under PMAY-G as per the parameters are specified?

• The Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011 (SECC) and Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana Gramin (PMAY-G)-Connect the dots

• How PMAY-G expenditure is shared?

• For Your Information-Under PMAY-G, the Centre and states share the expenditure in the ratio 60:10. In the case of Himalayan states, Union Territories and states in the North-East, the ratio is 90:10.

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍PMAY-G: state gets additional allocation of 1.44L houses

SC: May refer Delhi govt plea against Centre’s ordinance to 5-judge Bench

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-The Supreme Court said on Monday that it is “inclined” to send the Delhi government’s plea, challenging the constitutional validity of the Centre’s ordinance on control of services, to a five-judge Constitution Bench, saying it has legal aspects which were not “dealt with” by the two Constitution Benches which heard the matter earlier.

• Why Supreme Court is “inclined” to send the Delhi government’s plea to a five-judge Constitution Bench?

• Supreme Court’s Take-“We will issue notice. We are inclined to refer it to a Constitution Bench. The reason why we have to hear it in a combination of five is that for the first time they have used the power… conferred by Article 239 AA(7), and brought services out of the domain of the Delhi Legislative Assembly. They amend the Constitution by exercising the power under Article 239AA to take services out of the domain of the Delhi Legislative Assembly and bring them under the central control exclusively. Is that permissible? I don’t think either the first Constitution Bench judgment or the second dealt with this issue”.

• “First time they have used the power… conferred by Article 239 AA(7)”- what exactly is Article 239 AA(7)?

• The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (Amendment) Ordinance, 2023-Know the key provisions

• Quick Recap- The Centre on Friday (May 19) promulgated an Ordinance extending powers to the Delhi lieutenant governor over services in the administration of the national capital – basically, the power to transfer and appoint bureaucrats posted to Delhi. The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (Amendment) Ordinance, 2023, is seen as a bid to nullify last week’s ruling by a Constitution bench of the Supreme Court that handed over the reins of “services” to the Delhi Government. The court had then underlined the importance of the people’s mandate in a democracy expressed through an elected government.

• What was the Centre’s argument?

• What did the court decide?

• What exactly Supreme Court said in its judgement?

• Do you agree that the Lt. Governor of Delhi has more power? Attest your opinion with some recent incidence.

• What is the 69th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1991?

• The Chief Minister of Delhi is appointed by the Lieutenant Governor (LG)-True or False?

• In Delhi, In the case of difference of opinion between the Lieutenant Governor (L-G) and his ministers, the Lieutenant governor’s (L-G) decision is taken into the consideration-True or False?

• Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi Act, 1991-Know the Key Provisions

• The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (Amendment) Act, 2021 and Government of National Capital
Territory of Delhi Act, 1991-Compare and Contrast

• Know the Key Provisions of the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (Amendment) Act, 2021

• Articles 239AA and 239AB of the Constitution-Know in Detail

• There was Conflict between the Chief Minister of Delhi and the Lieutenant Governor (L-G)-What were the point of conflicts between the two?

• Supreme Court of India’s Verdict in Government of NCT of Delhi vs Union of India and Another in 2018 case-Know in Detail

• National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD) and Other Union territories-Compare and Contrast

• “NCTD, having a sui generis federal model, must be allowed to function in the domain charted for it by the Constitution”-What do you understand by this statement?

• “The Union and NCTD share a unique federal relationship. It does not mean that NCTD is subsumed in the unit of the Union merely because it is not a ‘State’,”-Comment

• The Legislative Assembly of NCTD has competence over entries in List II (state list) and List III (concurrent list) except for the expressly excluded entries of List II. The excluded entries are related to what?

• The Supreme Court also made it clear that “NCTD has legislative and executive power over services, that is, Entry 41 of List II of the Seventh Schedule.” Why did the Supreme Court have to come out with this directive?

• What Centre had contended with Entry 41 of List II of the Seventh Schedule?

• For Your Information-While the Supreme Court said that the legislative and executive power of NCTD over Entry 41 shall not extend to services related to public order, police, and land, these powers would remain with NCTD over “services such as Indian Administrative Services, or joint cadre services, which are relevant for the implementation of policies and vision of NCTD in terms of day-to-day administration of the region shall lie with NCTD”.

• “If a democratically elected government is not provided with the power to control the officers posted within its domain, then the principle underlying the triple-chain of collective responsibility would become redundant”-Elaborate further

• What is the extent of Delhi’s powers now?

• Extent of Delhi’s powers now- Article 239AA specifically excludes land, police and public order from the purview of the legislative powers of the Delhi government. The court acknowledged that these three issues can also have some overlap with “services” “The legislative and executive power of Delhi over Entry 41 (services) shall not extend over to services related to public order, police and land. However, legislative and executive power over such services such as Indian administrative services, or joint card of services, which are relevant for the implementation of policies and vision of NCT of Delhi in terms of day to day administration of the region, shall live with Delhi,” the court said.

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍HIJACKING DELHI

📍The 360° UPSC Debate: Delhi Statehood Debate—Reasons For And Against

Amid doubts, Govt sets up panel to review conduct of surveys

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.

Main Examination: General Studies II: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-With an objective to review the existing data framework and issues related to all surveys, the government has renamed and expanded the scope of coverage of the Standing Committee on Economic Statistics (SCES) formed in December 2019 as Standing Committee on Statistics (SCoS). This will be chaired by former Chief Statistician and former Chairman of the National Statistical Commission Dr Pronab Sen, who was also the head of the earlier SCES, an order dated July 13 by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI) said.

• Why new committee?

• Standing Committee on Economic Statistics (SCES)-Know in detail

• Why estimates related to poverty, growth, employment, and unemployment are fiercely scrutinised and debated?

• In India, policymakers typically rely on the what?

• What is National Sample Survey (NSS) and why it is important?

• For Your Information-In India, policymakers typically rely on the estimates of sample surveys of households to assess previous policies or to frame new policies. For example, the National Sample Survey (NSS) of households has been conducted to determine the household consumption expenditure, including services or durables, or to provide estimates of persons with disabilities, or to provide estimates of expenditure related to domestic tourism, or to provide estimates related to drinking water, hygiene, conditions of the house, etc. For health, policymakers rely on the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) and the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) for questions related to employment and unemployment. Even though academics and journalists lament the non-frequent nature of some of these surveys (in particular, the household consumption expenditure survey), and there is a constant demand for increasing frequency and size of surveys, there is practically a consensus on the robustness and the representativeness of the survey methodology. There have been virtually no concerns or studies on these surveys’ data quality.

• What are the major gap or loopholes in India’s data collection?

• Do You Know-The new committee comes at a time when India’s statistical system is under criticism, especially from three members of the Economic Advisory Council to the PM (EAC-PM) including Chairman Bibek Debroy and members Shamika Ravi and Sanjeev Sanyal.
In a column in The Indian Express earlier this month, Ravi had questioned the data quality of surveys, noting that it is imperative surveys for estimates related to poverty, growth, employment, and unemployment should be conducted at regular intervals in a predetermined timely manner and should be of the highest quality. Pointing out that all major surveys in India that were conducted post-2011 and used the Census 2011 for the sampling frame have overestimated the proportion of the rural population significantly, Ravi said, “These surveys use outdated sampling frames and hence, are not representative. In fact, the survey mechanisms are archaic and not adapted for rapid changes. As a consequence, these surveys grossly and systematically underestimate India’s progress and development and the misleading estimates from these surveys impede policy-making. Framing policies based on these estimates are unlikely to yield the desired results and we will continue to see a gap between ground realities and survey estimates.”

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍The sample is wrong

GOVT & POLITICS

Karnataka govt not to table Bill to repeal law on anti-conversion

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Main Examination: General Studies II: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-The Congress government in Karnataka has decided against tabling a Bill for repealing the controversial anti-conversion law, passed by the previous BJP-led state government, in the ongoing Budget Session of the state legislature despite a Cabinet decision on it on June 15. “The Bill is not likely to be tabled in the current session,” an official attached to the office of Karnataka Chief Minister Siddaramaiah said. Sources in the state legislature said a draft Bill prepared a few days ago and set for printing had been withdrawn by the government.

• What’s the controversial anti-conversion law, passed by the previous government in Karnataka?

• Karnataka Protection of Right to Freedom of Religion Act, 2022-Know key provisions of the bill

• Reason Behind Anti-Conversion Laws?

• For Your Information-The Karnataka Protection of Right to Freedom of Religion Bill was passed in September 2022 despite protests by Opposition parties and minority groups. The law restricts religious conversion and regulates interfaith marriages. Commonly referred to as the anti-conversion Act, the law prohibits conversion from one religion to another by misrepresentation, force, fraud, allurement or marriage. “No person shall convert or attempt to convert either directly or otherwise any other person from one religion to another by use of misrepresentation, force, undue influence, coercion, allurement or by any fraudulent means or by marriage, nor shall any person abet or conspire for conversions,” says the Act. The anti-conversion Act is largely modelled on laws that are in existence in UP, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh. Like the UP unlawful conversion law, the Karnataka “right to freedom of religion’ law addresses the right-wing concerns over “love jihad” by seeking to regulate interfaith marriages. According to the law, marriages where religious conversions have taken place for the convenience of marriage will have legal recognition only if the conversion has been brought to the notice of a district magistrate 30 days in advance and 30 days post-conversion. A jail term of three year to five years, and a fine of Rs 25,000 has been proposed for people from general categories violating the law. For people converting minors, women and persons from the SC and ST communities, the jail term is from three to 10 years, with a fine of Rs 50,000.

• Anti-conversion law in other States-Know in detail

• Why many states are introducing Anti-Conversion Laws?

• Know the Landmark Judgements of Supreme Court and High Courts on Conversion

• What Supreme Court of India, said in the Lily Thomas and Sarla Mudgal cases regarding religious conversion?

• What is forced religious conversions?

• What is religious conversion in India?

• Forced conversion in religion and religious conversion-what is the difference?

• Force vs Will (Choice)-How forced conversion in religion is defined in India?

• Article 25 of the Indian Constitution guarantees what?

• Is religious conversion part of Article 25 of the Indian Constitution?

• What is the procedure in India for religious conversion?

• What is the Union or State Government’s policy on religious conversion?

• What are the societal repercussions of religious conversion?

• What the Supreme Court had said in the 1977 ruling in the Rev Stainislaus versus State of Madhya Pradesh case?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Anatomy of anti-conversion legislation in India: A comparative look at state laws

EXPLAINED

HUF and uniform civil code

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance

Main Examination: 

• General Studies II: Indian Constitution—significant provisions etc.

• General Studies II: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-The Law Commission of India has initiated fresh deliberation on a Uniform Civil Code (UCC), which has triggered discussion on the institution of Hindu Undivided Family (HUF) and its separate treatment under tax laws.

• What is Hindu Undivided Family (HUF)?

• For Your Information-The existence of HUF as a legal entity is based on an acknowledgment of customs by the Raj in India. It was seen as an institution that operated on a strong sense of blood ties and kinship to jointly exercise control over property in Hindu families, and led to business arrangements based on Hindu personal laws rather than contractual arrangements. As a legal entity, HUF always portrayed a dual identity of a family-backed institution and an income-generating entity solely for the maintenance of the family. Such an arrangement probably played a part in the tax treatment that came to be incorporated in Indian law. For income tax purposes, an HUF consists of all persons lineally descended from a common ancestor, and includes their wives and unmarried daughters. An HUF has its own Permanent Account Number (PAN) and files tax returns independent of its members. An HUF has a karta who is typically the eldest male person in the family, and manages its day-to-day affairs. Other members are coparceners; children are coparceners of their father’s HUF.

• What is the difference between HUF and Hindu joint family?

• What are the features of HUF?

• What are the types of Hindu undivided family?

• What are the benefits of having a HUF?

• Do You Know-The Indian Income Tax Act of 1886 recognised HUF under the term “person”. In an effort to shore up finances for World War I, the British introduced the Super Tax Act, 1917, which recognized HUF as a separate entity for tax purposes for the first time. Super tax was levied in addition to income tax. The idea of HUF as a distinct category of taxpayer was incorporated in the Income Tax Act, 1922, which formed the basis of the post-independence Income Tax Act, 1961. The law currently in force recognizes HUF as a person under Section 2(31)(ii). Between the pre- and post-Independence laws, government-instituted committees critically examined the preferential tax treatment for HUFs. The Income Tax Enquiry Report of 1936 flagged the substantial revenue loss owing to the special exemptions for HUFs. The Taxation Enquiry Commission of 1953-54 acknowledged the anomalies created by the preferential tax treatment for HUFs. But since the treatment of HUF under tax law was tied to the legal position of HUF under Hindu personal law, and owing to the pendency of the Hindu Code Bill during that period, the Commission decided not to change the tax position of HUF. The Justice Wanchoo Committee Report of 1971 explicitly stated that the institution of HUF was being used to avoid tax. In 2018, a Law Commission consultation paper declared that “it is high time that it is understood that justifying this institution on the ground of deep-rooted sentiments at the cost of the country’s revenues may not be judicious”.

• What do you understand by “Hindu coparcenary system — the Hindu Undivided Family (HUF) property”?

• What is Uniform Civil Code?

• Article 44 of the Indian Constitution and Uniform Civil Code-What is the ongoing debate?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍The 360° UPSC Debate: Is Uniform Civil Code ‘unnecessary and undesirable’ or ‘justice for all communities’

BIMSTEC GROUPING

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s Interest

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- The first-ever Foreign Ministers’ meeting of the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) began in Bangkok, Thailand, on July 17. India’s External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar was also present here, and said in a tweet that areas of coordination challenges that were discussed, including health and energy security.

• What is BIMSTEC?

• What is the working mechanism of BIMSTEC?

• For Your Information-BIMSTEC is a regional organisation that was established in 1997 with the signing of the Bangkok Declaration. Initially known as BIST-EC (Bangladesh-India-Sri Lanka-Thailand Economic Cooperation), the organisation is now known as BIMSTEC and comprises seven members, with Myanmar joining towards the end of 1997, and Bhutan and Nepal in 2004. Around 22% of the world’s population live in the seven countries around the Bay of Bengal, with a combined GDP close to $2.7 trillion. All seven countries have sustained average annual rates of growth between 3.4% and 7.5% from 2012 to 2016. A fourth of the world’s traded goods cross the bay every year. Cooperation within the BIMSTEC had initially focused on six sectors in 1997 (trade, technology, energy, transport, tourism, and fisheries) and expanded in 2008 to other areas. In 2021, a reorganisation led to each of the Member States leading certain sectors. India focuses on security, along with counter-terrorism and transnational crime, disaster management and energy.

• Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC)-Member Countries

• Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC)-Background, Current host Country 2022, Vision and Mandate

• Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) and India

• SAARC and BIMSTEC-Difference and Importance

• Growth of BIMSTEC as a regional forum and India’s role-Analyse

• Why BIMSTEC is Significant for India?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Simply Put: Why BIMSTEC summit matters

THE EDITORIAL PAGE

To the moon and back

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies III: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-Chandrayaan-3 is now well on its way to the moon. It is to be a 42-day odyssey. The spacecraft is in an elliptical orbit, going as far as 41,762 km from Earth and coming as close as 173 km. This height will increase to about 220 km in the next few days, conducting various tests and calibrations, before it is transferred, free from the Earth, to be captured in orbit around the moon (translunar injection) a few days later. This orbit will gradually shrink, bringing the spacecraft closer and closer to the moon. Finally, it will attempt a soft landing at a location near the South Pole of the moon, from a circular orbit of about 100 km from the surface.

• Firstly, how do space missions work?

• What are the Chandrayaan missions?

• What is Chandrayaan-3 mission?

• For Your Information-The significance of Chandrayaan-3 for the Indian space programme is immense. The mission is a major step forward in India’s lunar exploration programme, and it is sure to make significant contributions to our understanding of the moon. Perhaps more importantly, it will showcase India’s capabilities and build its reputation in the global space community, which will help attract more investment in the country’s space industry. One is painfully aware that the private sector in India, despite being capable, is engaged in only a tiny fraction of the space enterprise in the international industrial sector, currently valued at about $500 billion. This has to change, and the Indian industry must become a major global player. The government’s newly-unveiled Space Policy 2023 states that India’s space programme should “enable, encourage and develop a flourishing commercial presence in space”. Chandrayaan-3 is a clear example of how India’s space programme is helping achieve this goal. The mission is a joint project between ISRO and the Indian private sector. This is the first time that India has partnered with the private sector on a major space mission, and it demonstrates the government’s commitment to the new Space Policy. The lander and rover that will be deployed on the Moon were developed by a consortium of Indian companies in collaboration with ISRO laboratories. The mission’s ground control systems were also developed by ISRO with the help of the industry, and much of the mission’s data will be processed and analysed by the private sector. India is now a signatory to the Artemis Accords, an agreement with the other leading Space Agencies of the world – NASA (US), ESA (Europe), JAXA (Japan) and the CSA (Canada) — for moon exploration with a view to colonise it. If Chandrayaan-3 can lead the way in this challenging region, future Artemis astronauts, based on ISRO’s pioneering work, will be able to collect core samples and volatiles from these regions. This could have a profound impact on the future of deep space exploration and eventual commercial activities.

• What is the name of Chandrayaan-3 lander Rover?

• Is Chandrayaan-1 success or failure?

• Has the Chandrayaan-2 mission encountered failure?

• What was the Chandrayaan-2 mission?

• What went wrong with the Chandrayaan-2’s Vikram lander?

• What was missed because of the crash landing?

• How Chandrayaan-3 mission is different from Chandrayaan-1 and Chandrayaan-2?

• Do You Know-The landing site for the integrated Vikram lander and Pragyan rover will remain the same as the previous mission: near the south pole of the moon at 70 degrees latitude. If successful, Chandrayaan-3 will become the first mission to soft land near the southern pole of the moon. The site was selected as it has several craters that remain permanently in shadows, increasing the chances of examining water ice. Chandrayaan 1, which also carried NASA payloads, was instrumental in confirming the presence of water and hydroxyl (OH) molecules on the moon. The mission will also make India the fourth country in the world to achieve soft landing on the moon after the US, Russia and China.

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Countdown on for Chandrayaan 3 launch today: soft landing on moon

THE WORLD

In blow to global food security, Russia halts grain deal after key bridge struck

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-Russia halted an unprecedented wartime deal on Monday that allows grain to flow from Ukraine to countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia where hunger is a growing threat and high food prices have pushed more people into poverty. Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov announced Russia would suspend the Black Sea Grain Initiative until its demands to get its own agricultural shipments to the world are met — even though the country has been shipping record amounts of wheat and its fertilizers also have been flowing.

• What is Black Sea grain Treaty?

• What’s the deal?

• Map Work-Black Sea

• Why grain deal is rebuked by Russia?

• What has been exported?

• How might the agreement change?

• Has it alleviated the food crisis?

• Has it driven down global wheat prices?

• For Your Information-The primary destinations for Russian wheat are the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia, led by Egypt, Iran and Algeria. While the Black Sea Grain Initiative helped Ukraine export 16.8 mt in 2022-23, about 39% of its wheat actually moved via the land route to Eastern Europe, instead of the specially-created corridors for shipping from the three designated ports of Odesa, Chornomorsk and Yuzhny. Ukraine’s markets have shifted dramatically from Asia and North Africa before the war to mainly Europe, mostly due to ease of shipment, according to the USDA. Ample supplies from Russia have helped soften global wheat prices. Russian wheat is now being exported at around $235 per tonne, as against $275 three months ago, $310 six months ago and $375 a year ago. The relatively low international prices of wheat can be a comfort factor for countries like India; it might have to consider the option of wheat imports if the kharif rice crop does not turn out too good due to poor monsoon rain in major paddy-growing states.

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Explained: What’s the significance of UN-backed grain export deal signed by Ukraine, Russia?

For any queries and feedback, contact priya.shukla@indianexpress.com
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